Wednesday, July 22, 2009

A Spy Novelist by Nature: The Charles Cumming Interview

A Spy Novelist by Nature: The Charles Cumming Interview

By Wesley Britton

I first heard the name Charles Cumming when we appeared together on a panel for host Fionn Davenport’s “Culture Shock” news-talk radio show out of Dublin, Ireland in May 2008. While Fionn praised Charles’ spy novels, at the time I was in the dark about them—but I can be forgiven my ignorance. None of his books had yet been published in the states.

That August, Penguin and St. Martins rectified that situation by finally releasing the first three novels that had long been available in the U.K. for American readers. The first, A Spy By Nature (2001), a novel partly based on Cumming’s own experiences with MI6, had introduced the flawed anti-hero, Alec Milius. The sequel, The Spanish Game (2006), had been described by The Times “as one of the six finest spy novels of all time.” Gratefully, Penguin sent me review copies of both Milious books, but didn’t include The Hidden Game, the 2003 novel Charles wrote without his now most famous character.

I admit, my favorite of the batch of books Penguin sent me was Typhoon, a new thriller about a clandestine American plot to destabilize China on the eve of the Beijing Olympics. It highlighted the plight of the Uyghur Muslim population in Xinjiang, a semi-autonomous region of The People's Republic of China. No one could have predicted it at the time, but in July 2009, fiction met fact when Islamic separatists in that region underwent brutal suppression from the Chinese government, a circumstance still unfolding as of this writing.

On top of all this, in March 2008 Charles Cumming published an interactive online story, The 21 Steps as part of a Penguin “We Tell Stories” project. In this new approach of using text with the possibilities of the internet, readers can follow the protagonist's travels through Google Maps.

No wonder, then, Spywise.net wanted a chance to ask Charles a few questions. I admit it took some time to accomplish this—Mr. Cumming is a hard man to nail down—but finally he sat down and responded to a handful of my queries. So here are some insights into one of the most important spy novelists working today:

----
Q: Much of your education dealt with English literature—how much of your formative reading involved espionage? Are there other literary influences that helped shape your style and perspectives on characters who get involved with shadow worlds, corruption, and the other themes you explore?

I wasn’t really a fan of spy novels growing up. I read most of the Bond books when I was very young, but no Deighton or Ludlum or Ambler. I didn’t get to le Carre until I was at university. I came across a copy of The Spy Who Came In From The Cold on holiday in Egypt and read it in a single sitting on an overnight train from Luxor to Cairo. I was blown away by it – the structure is so intricate and precise, it’s like a symphony. I still think it’s le Carre’s best book. Otherwise, my influences were mostly American: I wrote my university thesis on John Updike’s Rabbit books and I love Philip Roth, particularly the later novels. Richard Ford’s The Sportswriter also had a profound effect on me. Growing up, I was far more of a movie fan than a bookworm. Dozens of films – from Sex, Lies and Videotape to The Godfather– also had an influence on the way that I tell stories. I think Tom Rob Smith has also talked about this in the context of Child 44. He came primarily from a movie background, not a literary mindset.

Q: The first part of A Spy By Nature (2001) deals with the recruitment of Alec Milius, a young and rather naïve would-be agent by the S.I.S. It’s often been noted that this section was influenced by your own experiences with MI-6. Beyond describing the procedures and I presume some of the characters, how much autobiography is in these passages?

There are some very autobiographical passages, in the sense that the recruitment chapters are a precise and accurate account of what happened to me back in 1995. But a lot of Alec’s reactions and observations are his and not mine. Of course, we share certain character traits, but Alec is a lot more ambitious than I ever was, and a lot more paranoid. I dropped out of the MI6 recruitment at a very early stage. All of Alec’s experiences in the oil business and as an industrial spy are products of my imagination.

Q: An important element of ASBN is that it isn’t a duel between opposing agencies in the traditional sense, but rather some one-upmanship between British Intelligence and the CIA. Did this result from the fact the story was set after the Cold War and old conflicts were now out-of-date? It seemed to me, from the phony commercial magazine Alec works for to the spy ring he infiltrates, you’re showing that secret manipulation is all around us on a variety of levels.

It was certainly my intention to try something different to the run-of-the-mill Cold War, Us-Against-Them spy plot. One of the key themes in my books is the so-called Special Relationship between Great Britain and the United States. Of course, this is a very one-sided relationship: broadly speaking, we do what we are told by Washington. So I thought that it would be an interesting idea to explore the possibility that these two great allies spy on one another. There have been instances of this in the past: I believe there was an example of the Brits spying on the Americans during the Balkan conflict, for example. As far as Alec’s job at the magazine goes – yes, that was to create an idea that this is a young man who doesn’t have strong ethical beliefs, who is an opportunist and a liar. And he, in turn, is surrounded by liars. He was also unfaithful to Kate, his girlfriend, with a work colleague. In other words, large parts of his life are fabrications.

Q: The sequel, The Spanish Game (2003), was based in Spain, where you’d relocated. What made you decide to go back to Alec Milius after The Hidden Man (2003)?

The Hidden Man was a story that had been turning around in my mind for several years. I had always assumed that I would write it after completing A Spy By Nature. There was no place for Alec in the story, so I left him out. (I’ve done the same thing with Typhoon, my new novel, which doesn’t feature Alec.) Commercially, this was probably a wrongheaded idea: publishers and readers prefer a series with a repeating character. But I was stubborn and followed my heart rather than my head.

Q: The Spanish Game has been compared with the novels of John Le Carre and Len Deighton. For me, the most obvious connection is the fact Alec Milius is very human, very flawed, rather reminiscent of Bernard Sampson. What parallels do you see between your books and those of your predecessors—if any? Were you directly influenced by any of them?

The influence of le Carre on my books is obvious, I suppose: the idea that you could write a spy thriller without necessarily including a lot of action and derring-do had a great impact on me. With le Carre, it’s all about character and the relationships between those characters; that’s also been the case with me. I’m really not that interested in guns and soldiers and ticking clocks on bombs. However, perhaps I absorbed too much of le Carre’s political cynicism. He can be a bit too quick to ridicule the great and the good. As far as Deighton goes, I am ashamed to admit that I have never read the Bernard Samson novels. People keep recommending them to me and I will one day get around to it. I loved Funeral in Berlin and The Ipcress File, but that’s as far as I got with Deighton. Apparently Horse Under Water is also wonderful. Funnily enough, I have his cookbooks, which are excellent.

Q: For me, Typhoon (2008) was a major departure for you in that the scope widened considerably in setting, time, and characters. How did you come to envelope the Chinese Olympics with the rebellion brewing in the Muslim population in China?

There are a number of reasons. First, I was keen to write about China in some capacity, but I wasn’t sure what angle to take. A story set around the Chinese economic boom seemed to make the most sense, until I realized that a story about a character who’s just trying to get rich isn’t particularly interesting for the reader. Then a journalist in Beijing started talking to me about Xinjiang and all the elements fell into place: ethnic unrest and rioting; the cultural clash between the Han and Turkic Muslim Uighurs; the West’s role in contemporary China. I also wanted to find a way of writing about Neo-Con folly in Iraq without writing directly about Iraq. So a crazy American plan to bankroll Muslim separatists in Xinjiang and to land-grab north-west China fitted that purpose perfectly.

Q: It wasn’t until Typhoon that your books became widely available in the States—what took so long?

It was just a commercial thing. A Spy By Nature wasn’t picked up by an American publisher when it first appeared in the UK in 2001. Then, after Spanish Game came out in 2005, Diane Reverand at St Martin’s Press bought my first three books in a block. My current editor, Keith Kahla, bought Typhoon last year, also for St Martin’s. It’s coming out in late October in the States.

Q: I can’t help but think your online book, The 21 Steps, was an enjoyable project, both for the innovation of the concept and the nod to one of the founding fathers of the spy genre, John Buchan. How did this project come about?

It was a joint production between Penguin, who were keen to expand their online activities, and a company called Six to Start, who are cutting-edge innovators in the realm of computer games and so forth. They invited six Penguin authors to contribute stories. I was given The 39 Steps because of my links to spy fiction. I tried to do a very light, very modern update of Buchan’s story, full of cliffhangers, narrow escapes and absurd coincidences. It was fun to do.

Q: A frequent reviewer for Spywise.net (Mark Hooker) thinks the most prevalent genre in contemporary spy fiction is that of novels coming out from ex-members of the espionage community. Do you agree with this assessment? Are there authors you regard highly in this genre—I’m guessing someone you’ve read would be Dame Stella Remington.

Well, not every so-called ex-member of the espionage community is responsible for the work that goes out under his or her name. Over here in the UK, most of the top-selling military and espionage thrillers are ghost written. They’ve been very successful, so I think you’ll see more and more war reporters, former spies and politicians releasing books of this kind. In fact, in ten or fifteen years time, ninety percent of the novelists writing under their own names today will probably be making a living ghostwriting fiction and non-fiction titles for ‘celebrity’ authors. There will be a handful of marquee novelists – the likes of Lee Child, Robert Harris, JK Rowling and so forth – and then a glut of one-off books by people who have become famous in other walks of life: as cooks, reality show contestants, athletes or gardeners. There has probably never been a worse time to be a debut novelist. If I was starting out now, I may not have had the chance to write The Spanish Game or Typhoon. The market has become completely crazy and ruthless and I wouldn’t have been regarded as a safe enough commercial entity.

Q: Any news on film adaptations of your books? What’s next in the pipeline?

A Spy By Nature and The Spanish Game are under option to Red Rum films, a company based in Hollywood. John Hodges, who wrote Trainspotting and Shallow Grave, has signed on to write the script for A Spy By Nature, which is wonderful news. The rights to Typhoon are still up for grabs!

---
The official Charles Cumming website is—

www.charlescumming.co.uk/

You can read The 21 Steps at—

wetellstories.co.uk/stories/week1/
wetellstories.co.uk/authors/charles-cumming

You can read interviews with other spy novelists like Bill Raetz, T.H.E. Hill, Jeremy Duns, and Tod Goldberg by checking out the “Spies in History and Literature” files at—

www.Spywise.net

By Wesley Britton

I first heard the name Charles Cumming when we appeared together on a panel for host Fionn Davenport’s “Culture Shock” news-talk radio show out of Dublin, Ireland in May 2008. While Fionn praised Charles’ spy novels, at the time I was in the dark about them—but I can be forgiven my ignorance. None of his books had yet been published in the states.

That August, Penguin and St. Martins rectified that situation by finally releasing the first three novels that had long been available in the U.K. for American readers. The first, A Spy By Nature (2001), a novel partly based on Cumming’s own experiences with MI6, had introduced the flawed anti-hero, Alec Milius. The sequel, The Spanish Game (2006), had been described by The Times “as one of the six finest spy novels of all time.” Gratefully, Penguin sent me review copies of both Milious books, but didn’t include The Hidden Game, the 2003 novel Charles wrote without his now most famous character.

I admit, my favorite of the batch of books Penguin sent me was Typhoon, a new thriller about a clandestine American plot to destabilize China on the eve of the Beijing Olympics. It highlighted the plight of the Uyghur Muslim population in Xinjiang, a semi-autonomous region of The People's Republic of China. No one could have predicted it at the time, but in July 2009, fiction met fact when Islamic separatists in that region underwent brutal suppression from the Chinese government, a circumstance still unfolding as of this writing.

On top of all this, in March 2008 Charles Cumming published an interactive online story, The 21 Steps as part of a Penguin “We Tell Stories” project. In this new approach of using text with the possibilities of the internet, readers can follow the protagonist's travels through Google Maps.

No wonder, then, Spywise.net wanted a chance to ask Charles a few questions. I admit it took some time to accomplish this—Mr. Cumming is a hard man to nail down—but finally he sat down and responded to a handful of my queries. So here are some insights into one of the most important spy novelists working today:

----
Q: Much of your education dealt with English literature—how much of your formative reading involved espionage? Are there other literary influences that helped shape your style and perspectives on characters who get involved with shadow worlds, corruption, and the other themes you explore?

I wasn’t really a fan of spy novels growing up. I read most of the Bond books when I was very young, but no Deighton or Ludlum or Ambler. I didn’t get to le Carre until I was at university. I came across a copy of The Spy Who Came In From The Cold on holiday in Egypt and read it in a single sitting on an overnight train from Luxor to Cairo. I was blown away by it – the structure is so intricate and precise, it’s like a symphony. I still think it’s le Carre’s best book. Otherwise, my influences were mostly American: I wrote my university thesis on John Updike’s Rabbit books and I love Philip Roth, particularly the later novels. Richard Ford’s The Sportswriter also had a profound effect on me. Growing up, I was far more of a movie fan than a bookworm. Dozens of films – from Sex, Lies and Videotape to The Godfather– also had an influence on the way that I tell stories. I think Tom Rob Smith has also talked about this in the context of Child 44. He came primarily from a movie background, not a literary mindset.

Q: The first part of A Spy By Nature (2001) deals with the recruitment of Alec Milius, a young and rather naïve would-be agent by the S.I.S. It’s often been noted that this section was influenced by your own experiences with MI-6. Beyond describing the procedures and I presume some of the characters, how much autobiography is in these passages?

There are some very autobiographical passages, in the sense that the recruitment chapters are a precise and accurate account of what happened to me back in 1995. But a lot of Alec’s reactions and observations are his and not mine. Of course, we share certain character traits, but Alec is a lot more ambitious than I ever was, and a lot more paranoid. I dropped out of the MI6 recruitment at a very early stage. All of Alec’s experiences in the oil business and as an industrial spy are products of my imagination.

Q: An important element of ASBN is that it isn’t a duel between opposing agencies in the traditional sense, but rather some one-upmanship between British Intelligence and the CIA. Did this result from the fact the story was set after the Cold War and old conflicts were now out-of-date? It seemed to me, from the phony commercial magazine Alec works for to the spy ring he infiltrates, you’re showing that secret manipulation is all around us on a variety of levels.

It was certainly my intention to try something different to the run-of-the-mill Cold War, Us-Against-Them spy plot. One of the key themes in my books is the so-called Special Relationship between Great Britain and the United States. Of course, this is a very one-sided relationship: broadly speaking, we do what we are told by Washington. So I thought that it would be an interesting idea to explore the possibility that these two great allies spy on one another. There have been instances of this in the past: I believe there was an example of the Brits spying on the Americans during the Balkan conflict, for example. As far as Alec’s job at the magazine goes – yes, that was to create an idea that this is a young man who doesn’t have strong ethical beliefs, who is an opportunist and a liar. And he, in turn, is surrounded by liars. He was also unfaithful to Kate, his girlfriend, with a work colleague. In other words, large parts of his life are fabrications.

Q: The sequel, The Spanish Game (2003), was based in Spain, where you’d relocated. What made you decide to go back to Alec Milius after The Hidden Man (2003)?

The Hidden Man was a story that had been turning around in my mind for several years. I had always assumed that I would write it after completing A Spy By Nature. There was no place for Alec in the story, so I left him out. (I’ve done the same thing with Typhoon, my new novel, which doesn’t feature Alec.) Commercially, this was probably a wrongheaded idea: publishers and readers prefer a series with a repeating character. But I was stubborn and followed my heart rather than my head.

Q: The Spanish Game has been compared with the novels of John Le Carre and Len Deighton. For me, the most obvious connection is the fact Alec Milius is very human, very flawed, rather reminiscent of Bernard Sampson. What parallels do you see between your books and those of your predecessors—if any? Were you directly influenced by any of them?

The influence of le Carre on my books is obvious, I suppose: the idea that you could write a spy thriller without necessarily including a lot of action and derring-do had a great impact on me. With le Carre, it’s all about character and the relationships between those characters; that’s also been the case with me. I’m really not that interested in guns and soldiers and ticking clocks on bombs. However, perhaps I absorbed too much of le Carre’s political cynicism. He can be a bit too quick to ridicule the great and the good. As far as Deighton goes, I am ashamed to admit that I have never read the Bernard Samson novels. People keep recommending them to me and I will one day get around to it. I loved Funeral in Berlin and The Ipcress File, but that’s as far as I got with Deighton. Apparently Horse Under Water is also wonderful. Funnily enough, I have his cookbooks, which are excellent.

Q: For me, Typhoon (2008) was a major departure for you in that the scope widened considerably in setting, time, and characters. How did you come to envelope the Chinese Olympics with the rebellion brewing in the Muslim population in China?

There are a number of reasons. First, I was keen to write about China in some capacity, but I wasn’t sure what angle to take. A story set around the Chinese economic boom seemed to make the most sense, until I realized that a story about a character who’s just trying to get rich isn’t particularly interesting for the reader. Then a journalist in Beijing started talking to me about Xinjiang and all the elements fell into place: ethnic unrest and rioting; the cultural clash between the Han and Turkic Muslim Uighurs; the West’s role in contemporary China. I also wanted to find a way of writing about Neo-Con folly in Iraq without writing directly about Iraq. So a crazy American plan to bankroll Muslim separatists in Xinjiang and to land-grab north-west China fitted that purpose perfectly.

Q: It wasn’t until Typhoon that your books became widely available in the States—what took so long?

It was just a commercial thing. A Spy By Nature wasn’t picked up by an American publisher when it first appeared in the UK in 2001. Then, after Spanish Game came out in 2005, Diane Reverand at St Martin’s Press bought my first three books in a block. My current editor, Keith Kahla, bought Typhoon last year, also for St Martin’s. It’s coming out in late October in the States.

Q: I can’t help but think your online book, The 21 Steps, was an enjoyable project, both for the innovation of the concept and the nod to one of the founding fathers of the spy genre, John Buchan. How did this project come about?

It was a joint production between Penguin, who were keen to expand their online activities, and a company called Six to Start, who are cutting-edge innovators in the realm of computer games and so forth. They invited six Penguin authors to contribute stories. I was given The 39 Steps because of my links to spy fiction. I tried to do a very light, very modern update of Buchan’s story, full of cliffhangers, narrow escapes and absurd coincidences. It was fun to do.

Q: A frequent reviewer for Spywise.net (Mark Hooker) thinks the most prevalent genre in contemporary spy fiction is that of novels coming out from ex-members of the espionage community. Do you agree with this assessment? Are there authors you regard highly in this genre—I’m guessing someone you’ve read would be Dame Stella Remington.

Well, not every so-called ex-member of the espionage community is responsible for the work that goes out under his or her name. Over here in the UK, most of the top-selling military and espionage thrillers are ghost written. They’ve been very successful, so I think you’ll see more and more war reporters, former spies and politicians releasing books of this kind. In fact, in ten or fifteen years time, ninety percent of the novelists writing under their own names today will probably be making a living ghostwriting fiction and non-fiction titles for ‘celebrity’ authors. There will be a handful of marquee novelists – the likes of Lee Child, Robert Harris, JK Rowling and so forth – and then a glut of one-off books by people who have become famous in other walks of life: as cooks, reality show contestants, athletes or gardeners. There has probably never been a worse time to be a debut novelist. If I was starting out now, I may not have had the chance to write The Spanish Game or Typhoon. The market has become completely crazy and ruthless and I wouldn’t have been regarded as a safe enough commercial entity.

Q: Any news on film adaptations of your books? What’s next in the pipeline?

A Spy By Nature and The Spanish Game are under option to Red Rum films, a company based in Hollywood. John Hodges, who wrote Trainspotting and Shallow Grave, has signed on to write the script for A Spy By Nature, which is wonderful news. The rights to Typhoon are still up for grabs!

---
The official Charles Cumming website is—

www.charlescumming.co.uk/

You can read The 21 Steps at—

wetellstories.co.uk/stories/week1/
wetellstories.co.uk/authors/charles-cumming

You can read interviews with other spy novelists like Bill Raetz, T.H.E. Hill, Jeremy Duns, and Tod Goldberg by checking out the “Spies in History and Literature” files at—

www.Spywise.net

39 comments:

chen7391 said...

你的部落格很棒,我期待更新喔........................................

睡衣 said...

喜樂的心是健康良藥,憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。........................................

簡單 said...

期待你的下次更新喔^____^........................................

怡如 said...

外表往往與事實不符,世人卻容易被外表的裝飾所欺騙。 ..................................................

欣盈 said...

I do like ur article~!!!..................................................

雅琳 said...

免費視訊視訊交友視訊美女成人視訊免費視訊聊天情人視訊交友聊天室18成人辣妹視訊美女交友視訊交友聊天視訊交友網情人視訊聊天交友愛情館情色聊天成人網站視訊網愛視訊交友聊天室免費視訊視訊交友視訊美女成人視訊免費視訊聊天情人視訊交友聊天室18成人辣妹視訊美女交友視訊交友聊天視訊交友網情人視訊聊天交友愛情館情色聊天成人網站聊天室交友視訊網愛視訊交友聊天室交友ggo免費視訊聊天室免費視訊辣妹情人視訊網情色聊天室豆豆聊天室免費視訊聊天室免費視訊辣妹情人視訊網情色聊天室豆豆聊天室

PorshaCoghlan梁子珠 said...

喜樂的心是健康良藥,憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。........................................

ElvisS_Scholten0188 said...

sex女,ut,貼影,av,高潮,女優,做愛,手機成人影片,色遊戲,成人動漫,百分百貼圖區,85cc影片,成人影音,av色情影片,A片線上,a片,sex,777,三級線上看,美女的照片,視訊做愛,78論壇,打飛機,免費視訊,成人影院,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天,影片網,kiss911,a片,交友,聊天,做愛,免費影片,性交,線上成人,網路色情,聊天,美女自慰,免費a分享,免費短片,裸照,一夜情,女優,85cc成人片,美女寫真,偷拍a,情人視訊聊天室

呈婷 said...

讓人流連忘返,真期待新文章發表! ........................................

YukikoJ威宇 said...

your artical is so funny!! it make me so happy!! .............................................

韋于倫成 said...

失去金錢的人,失去很多;失去朋友的人,失去更多;失去信心的人,失去所有。..................................................

AmiraE_Ta said...

成人貼站 中部視訊聊天 免費色情聊天室 av免費片 交友 最新女優排行 性感美女 777美女影片 學生妹偷拍 6k 聊天室 愛愛色情網 情趣影片 18禁免費看 台灣美少女自拍俱樂部 美腿影城 a片歐美 情色試看 色情榜 情色貼圖區 //bbs.x383.com/sexcity/ 完美女人影音聊天網 一夜情 情色美女圖 辣妹 人妻熟女系列 歐美超熟女 情人視訊 2009空姐招考 a片a圖分享區 美女自拍寫真 85cc免費影城85cc卡通 微風線上成人觀看 打嘟嘟成人網 777 貼圖貼片 援交桃園 嘟都情人色網 鋼管 無碼av貼圖 洪爺影視 大奶av女優免費看 sex520免費影片亞洲區 免費線上成人影片下載 巨乳 性愛持久 後宮網站 無碼 0204影城 免費線上性愛直播 走光秀

冠宛君中 said...

一個人的價值,應該看他貢獻了什麼,而不是他取得了什麼..................................................

chrry said...

才華在逆境中展現,在順境中被掩藏。..................................................

嘉剛 said...

不要把生命看得太嚴肅,反正我們不會活著離開。..................................................................

姵潔 said...

I guess I will need a lot..................................................

許紀廷 said...

欣賞是一種美德~回應是最大的支持^^.................................................................

銘木 said...

知識可以傳授,智慧卻不行。每個人必須成為他自己。......................................................................

于庭 said...

成熟,就是有能力適應生活中的模糊。.................................................................

易青易青 said...

當一個人內心能容納兩樣相互衝突的東西,這個人便開始變得有價值了。............................................................

陳韋夏陳韋夏益東富益東富 said...

不只BLOG內容很棒留言也很精采 XDDDD..................................................................

與發 said...

文章雖然普通,但意義卻很大~~^^~~ ..................................................................

子生子生 said...

A friend to everybody is a friend to nobody...................................................................

佩璇佩璇 said...

Poverty is stranger to industry.............................................................

梁淑娟梁淑娟 said...

德不孤,必有鄰。文不獨,必有應!............................................................

潘凱花潘凱花 said...

單純喜歡你的部落格 留個言跟您問聲好~~..................................................

芳瑜芳瑜 said...

More haste, less speed..................................................................

RicoLisi0802志竹 said...

文章不求沽名釣譽,率性就是真的..................................................................

錢靜怡錢靜怡錢靜怡 said...

Pay somebody back in his own coin.............................................................

毛彥宇毛彥宇 said...

時間就是塑造生命的材料。

施以王雅玲音 said...

Many a true word is spoken in jest.......................................................................

亦奈美妮 said...

我從來不認為不同意我的看法就是冒犯................................................

文王廷 said...

時間就是塑造生命的材料。

陳倩江陳倩江陳倩江 said...

友誼能增進快樂,減少痛苦......................................................................

枝誠侑誠侑竹 said...

文章雖然普通,但意義卻很大~~^^~~ ..................................................

怡靜怡靜怡靜怡雯 said...

今夜星光多美好~祝你快樂~~~~............................................................

于庭吳 said...

Quality is better than quantity...................................................................

瑰潼 said...

在莫非定律中有項笨蛋定律:「一個組織中的笨蛋,恆大於等於三分之二。」..................................................

Fahad Khan said...

i like your post and you blogging style.
bollywood movies list 2014
bollywood movies list 2015